Introduction to Singular Attribution

Learn how Singular's attribution tracking service works and what it can do.

For more information, see Attribution Lookback Window and Device Fingerprinting Methodology. To learn how to implement Singular Attribution, see Setting Up Singular Attribution: Overview.


Install Attribution

Mobile attribution is the process of connecting actions and activities that occur inside a mobile app to those that occur outside of it.

Singular makes these connections by linking an impression or click action that happens on a device to the install (first session) of a mobile app on that same device.


Singular’s mobile attribution service uses the following methods to attribute installs:

Referrer (Android Only)

This the most reliable attribution method. When a user clicks on an ad and reaches the Google Play store, a unique Singular referral ID is passed to Google Play. Once the user installs the app, the Singular SDK sends the Singular referral ID forwarded by the Play Store, and attribution is performed.

Additionally, Singular uses the same referrer technology to capture other attributions labeled in Singular as UTM Referrer attributions.

Identifier Matching

In this method, the attribution is done based on the Google Advertising ID (AIFA) or iOS Advertising ID (IDFA) that are sent in the tracking link. Once the install event arrives from the Singular SDK, it is matched to the click based on that ID. Identifier matching has a maximum of a 30-day attribution window.

Fingerprint Matching

In this method, a tracking URL collects basic information of the device, including IP address and model, which results in a unique fingerprint. The same fingerprint is generated locally on the device once the app is installed and then sent via Singular SDK session. The click and the session are then fingerprint matched. Fingerprint matching is limited to 24 hours.

Self-Attributing Networks

Using this method, we query special API’s for attribution data of special partners like: Facebook, AdWords, Twitter, Apple Search Ads, Snapchat, Yahoo Gemini.

In accordance with Google and Apple privacy policies, Singular tracks unique devices and their attribution information using the user-resettable Google Advertising ID (AIFA) and iOS Advertising ID (IDFA). Singular retains a device’s install attribution information to ensure attribution and cohort accuracy. Re-engagements can be tracked any number of times with supported partners.

Attribution Windows

Singular’s install attribution utilizes the attribution windows specified in the partner configuration for all methods except for fingerprint matching. Fingerprint matching uses a default 24-hour window.

Re-engagement Attribution

In re-engagement, users who have already installed the app are actively targeted by a campaign.

Re-engagement attribution is supported for supported click-based partners, as indicated by the the "Enable Reengagement" option when creating tracking links:


  • Identifiers are available on the generated tracking link.  For supported partners, they are passed by the partner in the tracking link via device identifier keys (e.g. idfa=, aifa=).  Re-engagement where identifiers are not available (e.g. fingerprinting) is not supported.
  • Click-based tracking links only. View-through re-engagement is not supported.

For self-attributing networks that do not use tracking tags, make sure re-engagement tracking is enabled in partner configurations.

Attribution Windows

Re-engagement attributions utilize the attribution windows specified in the partner configuration

Event Attribution

Event attribution is based on the device’s original attribution source. An event that occurs on the device will be attributed to the source of the device’s last attribution, whether it be the install attribution or re-engagement attribution.

For example, consider the following scenario:

  • install is attributed to "Organic"
  • a purchase for $5 is made
  • re-engagement is attributed to "Facebook" within the attribution window
  • another purchase for $10 is made

The attributed revenue results in the following:

  • Install - Organic - $5
  • Re-engagement - Facebook - $10

UTM Referrer Attributions (Android Only)

Android apps with the Singular SDK leverage the Android Referrer API to pass a Singular referral ID for attribution. Attributions to the Singular referral ID are prioritized as they are attributions tracked via Singular tracking links. However, referrer technology also allows Singular to capture attributions from anyone who clicks on a Play Store URL with UTM referrers appended.

Since these are attributions not tracked through a paid source via Singular, UTM Referrer attributions are only counted if no other paid source claims the attribution. UTM Referrer attributions can often offer interesting insights to where additional "Organic" traffic can be coming from. For example, apps downloaded from the app search tab in the Android Facebook app will be tracked in Singular as a "UTM Referrer" attribution to "".


If you would like to enable UTM Referrer tracking for your Android apps, please reach out to your customer success manager.

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