Events help you answer questions such as:
- How many purchases were made by app users acquired via my Facebook campaign?
- How many users got to level 4 of my game from an Adwords campaign?
- How many users who got to my website from a marketing activity registered to my platform?
Purchases, level-ups, and registrations are all examples of user events within your app or website that Singular can track for you. Use the Events page (Settings > Events) to tell Singular which events you want to measure.
Depending on your customer tier and the platform(s) of your products, the Events page may let you define cohort events (mostly associated with mobile apps), conversion events (mostly useful for websites), or both.
Watch a video tutorial:
Cohort Events FAQ
Information for Singular Attribution Customers
For Singular Attribution customers, standard events are events with pre-defined names that are commonly supported by ad networks for reporting and optimization.
Standard events reported by your app through the Singular SDK are created automatically in the Events page, saving you time when you onboard.
Singular recommends using standard events in your SDK/S2S integration (rather than events with custom names and attributes) whenever possible.
When you integrate a Singular SDK or S2S into your app, Singular tracks several types of in-app events automatically, without you having to add code to send them to Singular when they happen.
These built-in events will appear in:
- The Events page
- User-level attribution logs (see Export Logs and User-Level Data FAQ)
- Partner postbacks (if the partner is receiving the auto-generated event name)
- Internal BI postbacks
See the list of built-in events.
This information applies to new Growth Plan customers. For other customers, standard events are not added automatically to the Events page yet. We are in the process of rolling out this feature to all customers.
If you use Singular Attribution, some of the in-app events that your app sends to the Singular server will be tracked automatically with no need for further configuration on your part:
- Built-in events such as __REVENUE__ (see Built-In Events for the full list)
- Standard events (see What are standard events?)
If your app sends custom events (meaning events with custom names and attributes, as opposed to standard events), these are not added automatically to the Events page, and you need to add them manually to have Singular group them by cohort and aggregate the data for analysis and reporting.
If your app sends a large number of standard events, some of them may not be added automatically either, due to the limitations on the number of events in the Events page. Learn more about the limitations.
Note that all the in-app events that your app sends to the Singular server appear automatically in the user-level attribution logs (see Attribution-Logs">Exporting Attribution Logs).
The Events page is populated with events received from the Singular SDK. If you don't see your events, check if you have:
- Correctly integrated the Singular SDK in your app
- Defined your events in the SDK
- Correctly added your apps in Singular.
Information for All Singular Customers
Cohort events are in-app user events such as sign-ups, purchases, leveling up in a gaming app, etc. You can have Singular track and aggregate any of these events by cohort, where the cohorts are based on the date of install (see What are cohort metrics in Singular?).
In other words, cohort events answer questions such as:
- In the group of users who installed the app on a certain day, how many users made a purchase within 7 days after installing?
- In the group of users who installed the app on a certain day, how many users leveled up within 14 days after installing?
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Cohort events are defined based on information from your attribution tracker. Any user interaction that your app reports to your tracker (sends an event to the tracker) can be used to define a cohort event so you can track the stats for it in aggregate.
To start tracking events:
If you use Singular for attribution, you first have to make sure that your app reports in-app events to Singular through the Singular SDK or S2S integration. For details, see How to Track In-App Events.
If you have a different attribution tracker/MMP, follow their instructions for reporting events.
- Then go to Setting > Events and click Add Event. For each event you want to track, give it a name and use the dropdown lists to map it to one or more events reported by your attribution tracker/MMP or offered by self-attributing networks such as Facebook and Google Ads. For other options and settings for defining events, see the following questions.
You may want to track the same type of event across multiple applications. If so, select Global Events and then add the event.
If the event you want to add is only relevant to a specific app, select App-Specific Events and select the app.
In a unique event, you count the number of unique users who did something, e.g., how many distinct users made a purchase (unique event) vs. how many purchases were made through the app (non-unique event).
For example, say you run a report on the date of January 1 with a cohort period of 7 days. This is what occurred for that cohort in that period:
The number of purchases (non-unique) is 4.
The number of unique purchases is 2.
If you choose a date range of more than one day, you are looking at more than one cohort, so the unique events for the different cohorts are simply added up.
For example, running a report on unique purchases in the date range of January 1-10, with the same cohort period, will result in a summary of how many distinct users who installed the app on those days made a purchase within 7 days after installing the app.
- Unique events can be measured by cohort only. For details about the ways you can measure actual-date events, see Ways of Measuring Events (Cohort vs. Actual, Unique, First).
- If you run a report with unique events, you have to choose a cohort period (and can't choose "Actual").
- If you map a unique event to multiple in-app events, the result will be the number of distinct devices that created the first in-app event, plus the number of distinct devices that created the second in-app event, and so on. For example, say your app sends the events "registered_purchase" and "quick_purchase," and you map them both into the unique event "Purchase." The result will be the number of devices that created "registered_purchase" plus the number of devices that created "quick_purchase" - meaning that if the same user made different types of purchases, the user would be counted twice. To actually count how many distinct users made a purchase, have your app send the same event for all types of purchases.
- When you create a new event, selecting "unique" changes the in-app events you can choose in the drop-downs.
- You cannot create an event that measures both unique users and a simple count at the same time.
Yes, you can map the event to more than one in-app event in the list. For example, if you are defining a cohort event called "sign-up," you can map it to the sign-up event defined in your attribution tracker, and to the sign-up event defined in Facebook.
- Make sure not to combine "sum" and "count" events. These are very different types of events, and combining them under the same cohort event will lead to misleading numbers.
- Mapping unique events to multiple in-app events may lead to unintended results (see the warning in What is a unique event?).
Check the Cost per Event checkbox to have Singular add a metric that calculates your marketing costs per 1 event of this type (in the same way that Singular measures cost per install).
For example, if you define a "Registration" event, you can have Singular calculate your marketing costs per registration event. The metric will appear in your reports as "Registration CPE."
- CPE is calculated per source and only where both cost and the specific event count are available.
- In a report that is not broken down by source, the CPE does NOT follow the formula of (Total Cost / Total Event Count). Instead, Singular only takes into account the CPEs for the sources that have an event count and a cost - excluding any rows that would skew the CPE calculation. Without this, the aggregated CPE may be heavily skewed by zero-cost organic installs and/or networks that aren't driving the specific event.
Check the Event Conversion Rate checkbox to have Singular add a metric that calculates the conversion rate from installs to your event. This is useful if you are optimizing your campaigns toward a certain event.
For example, if you are interested in how many users register to your platform after installing your app, add a "Registration" event, map it to the app's user registration event, and check the Event Conversion Rate checkbox. The Reports page will now include a Registration Conversion Rate metric calculated as registrations divided by installs.
The events you create appear in your query options on the Reports page. The calculated metrics are shown under Cohort Metrics (see What are cohort metrics?).
You can also view event stats through the Singular Reporting API. Use the Cohort Metrics endpoint to retrieve a list of all the cohort events defined in your account. Then, run a report through the Create Async Report endpoint, including one or more of those events.
- Allow 24 hours for the data from the event to start appearing in your reports.
- If you save any reports or create any widgets in the dashboard based on events, deleting the event requires you to reset the saved reports.
You can modify an existing event, with some limitations:
- You can edit the name.
- You can add or remove CPE and ECVR (Event Conversion Rate).
- You can add other events to be mapped to this event, but you cannot remove events that have already been mapped. To remove mapped events, you have to delete the entire event and create a new one from scratch.
- You can't make a unique event non-unique or vice versa.
Conversion Events FAQ
Conversion events are based on data from your ad networks. Any user interactions that are reported by the network can be used to define a conversion event in Singular.
Choose which events you consider to be "conversions" based on the nature of your product and your goals and KPIs.
- If you are marketing an online store, your conversion events could be the user making a purchase or signing up for an account.
- If you're marketing a B2B solution, your conversion event could be a lead (the user asking for a product demo).
Watch a video tutorial:
Conversion events are based on information from your ad networks. Any user interactions that are reported by the network can be used to define a conversion event in Singular.
To add a new conversion event:
- Go to Settings > Events and click New Event.
- Give your event an indicative name and choose what event it maps to in your advertising platform.
- If you also would also like to see the cost per event calculation in your reports, select the Cost Per Event (CPE) checkbox.
- Click Save.
Some events, such as purchases and lead creations, are associated with a dollar value. In that case, you can choose if you want your conversion event to track the count of events or the sum of the events' dollar values.
Yes - just define a separate conversion event for each in the Events page.
After you add a conversion event, it is available in the Reports page under "Events," with the name you configured for it.
Event data is also available through the Singular Reporting API. Use the Conversion Metrics endpoint to retrieve a list of all the conversion events defined in your account. Then, run a report through the Create Async Report endpoint including one or more of those events.
Note: Conversion events are never tracked by cohort and you do not need to pick a cohort period for them (see What are cohort metrics and cohort periods?). They are always tracked for the actual date.
You can also view conversion event stats through the Singular Reporting API. Use the Conversion Metrics endpoint to retrieve a list of all the conversion events defined in your account. Then, run a report through the Create Async Report endpoint, including one or more of those events.
SKAN (SKAdNetwork) Events
SKAN events are events measured in SKAdNetwork campaigns. You do not have to define these events manually in the Events page. Instead, they are created automatically for you when you activate an SKAdNetwork conversion model. For more information, see What are SKAN events? [SKAdNetwork Reporting FAQ].
Watch a video tutorial:
You cannot add or remove SKAN events from the list.
You can rename an event if you want. By default, the event is named after the SDK event that it measures, but you can give it a name that would be clearer to people reading the SKAdNetwork report.
No, no matter how many SKAN events are created through your conversion models, they will not count toward your quota of allowed events.